Sight Search

Diving in a Time Capsule

CREDITS | Text and Images By Becky Kagan Schott

Thunder Bay National Marine Sanctuary is America’s treasure.

The Florida Keys, Flower Garden Banks off the Texas coast, California’s Channel Islands and North Carolina’s USS Monitor shipwreck are among the more well-known of the 14 national marine sanctuaries the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) manages. They are all incredible, but every summer one of my must-visit shipwreck destinations is the Thunder Bay National Marine Sanctuary in Lake Huron off the northeastern coast of Michigan.
The Kyle Spangler was a two-masted schooner that collided with another schooner in 1860 and sank into 180 feet of water.
Thunder Bay has nearly 100 known shipwrecks, and others are still being discovered. The oldest shipwreck there sank in 1849, but many wrecks are from the mid- and late 1800s to the early 1900s. The location, history and variety of ships — from wooden schooners to freighters — make Thunder Bay special. The wrecks are at various depths, ranging from the snorkel zone to recreational and technical diving levels.
Known as Shipwreck Alley, this area has unpredictable weather, strong winds, dense fog and rocky shoals that have sent many ships to the lake bottom. Collisions, fires and ice have also contributed to the collection of wrecks throughout the Great Lakes. History is preserved below the surface here, with vessels ranging from modern steel freighters to a pre-Civil War sidewheel steamer. The national significance of this history led to the sanctuary’s creation in 2000 and expansion in 2014 from 448 to 4,300 square miles. Future NOAA expeditions will further explore Thunder Bay, which may hold up to 200 wrecks.
In 2011 I worked with NOAA and Sony on the Project Shiphunt documentary. We spent a few weeks in Alpena, Michigan, searching for unexplored wrecks and found the schooner M.F. Merrick and the inverted freighter Etruria in more than 300 feet of water. We were the first people to lay eyes on them in more than a century. I left Michigan with a new obsession: diving the Great Lakes.
During my time there, I met passionate archaeologists from the sanctuary and spent a lot of time at the beautiful museum in Alpena. Their enthusiasm for protecting the resources and educating the public was infectious. After I left, I couldn’t get the wrecks out of my mind; later that year, when the water warmed to at least 38°F, I revisited the sanctuary. The perfectly preserved wooden wrecks and schooners were irresistible draws. Sitting on the bottom with their masts standing straight, they look as if they are still sailing. In my mind this was how shipwrecks should always look.
Few charters visit the wrecks, even though many sites have buoys. Most of the charters are for six passengers and run for only a few months during the summer. When you first pull out of the marina, the Caribbean-blue water is visually impressive, but it’s not Caribbean warm. Temperatures can range from 37°F to 40°F on the bottom and are usually in the 60°F range in late summer from 30 feet to the surface. Many recreational divers wear thick wetsuits, but I highly recommend a drysuit.
The marina in Alpena is an excellent place to depart from to see the wrecks in recreational limits
The best months to dive are June through September, when air temperatures are pleasant and conditions vary from dense fog to full sun. Most areas usually have little to no current, and most of the sites have a mooring buoy for ascents and descents and to protect the wrecks from anchor or grapple damage. Invasive quagga mussels have cleaned the water over the past two decades, leaving stellar visibility that typically ranges from 50 to more than 100 feet.
These are natural shipwrecks, many of them wooden, and the cold, fresh water has preserved them. They would not be intact or possibly even exist if they were in salt water. Diving here is like being inside a time capsule. The wrecks are irreplaceable, so it’s important not to damage them, and it’s illegal to remove any artifacts from the sites. As a photographer I enjoy descending to a shipwreck and seeing the wooden wheel in place, a bell, a galley full of teacups and plates, and personal belongings such as binoculars and clothing still there. Each wreck has an extraordinary story and history to tell through its remaining artifacts.
Thunder Bay is my favorite place to wreck dive because everything is well preserved, and the stories of mystery, tragedy and survival are captivating.

Recreational Sites

The Grecian was a 296-foot steel bulk freighter that first sank in 1906 after hitting a submerged rock in the St. Mary’s River. The ship was refloated, but it suddenly sank again while being towed to Detroit for repairs. The entire crew survived, but the vessel met its final resting place in 100 feet of water. The bow and stern are upright and intact, but the midsection has collapsed. At this popular site, divers can see the propeller, engine, boiler and deck equipment. The bow still has the windlass and sits with a slight starboard list. The Grecian’s sister ship, the Norman, rests 30 miles north in 200 feet of water.
The stern of the Grecian sits upright in 60 to 100 feet of water and is a popular recreational site in the sanctuary.
The Monohansett at just 20 feet deep is excellent for snorkeling or diving. Built in 1872, this wooden steam barge was 160 feet long and carried loads of coal. The ship caught fire in November 1907 and burned to the waterline near Thunder Bay Island. The crew suffered minor burns and lost their belongings, but all survived thanks to the life-saving station on the island. Diving the Monohansett is a great experience. It sits in three sections, but the water is generally so clear you can see most of the wreck from the surface. Divers can swim along the hull, which looks like ribs, and see the propeller and shaft. The large boiler sits nearby at this photogenic site.
The stern section of the Monohansett sits in just 20 feet of water.
The W.P. Thew was a 132-foot steam barge launched in 1884 and designed to carry logs, lumber, railroad ties and shingles, one of many 19th-century steamers intended for this purpose. After 25 years in service, the W.P. Thew sank in 1909 when it collided with a freighter in heavy fog. The damage sent it to its final resting place in 84 feet of water. Machinery, deck equipment, boilers and other artifacts are splayed out on the bottom. You can make out the fantail, and the prop and shaft are visible. Many eel-like burbot fish are typically at this site, so watch for the rounded tail fin.

The E.B. Allen is another popular recreational site, especially for divers wanting to see a wooden schooner. This 134-foot-long, two-masted schooner sank in November 1871 while carrying a cargo of grain to Buffalo, New York; a heavy fog developed, and the schooner Newsboy tore a large hole in the portside hull. The crew made it aboard the Newsboy before watching the E.B. Allen disappear below the waves into 100 feet of water. Today the wreck sits upright with its masts fallen. When you first descend and the ship comes into view, the schooner’s windlass and anchor chains are visible on the bow. When swimming along the deck, you’ll see other machinery, and the rudder is still at the stern but mostly buried in the lake bottom.
A diver ascends after exploring the E.B. Allen.
The Joseph S. Fay is one of my favorite sites. Visitors can access the site from shore near 40 Mile Point Lighthouse by snorkeling, diving, paddleboarding or boating. It is a bit of a swim, but the shore slopes gradually to where the wreck sits in 18 feet of water. A buoy marks the site. The 216-foot bulk freighter Joseph S. Fay was built in 1871 and carried iron ore. In October 1905 it encountered a fierce gale in northern Lake Huron and hit submerged rocks at 40 Mile Point. The ship, which was fully loaded and towing the ore-carrying barge D.P. Rhodes, quickly broke apart, and its stern split open. The hull and iron ore cargo still sit on the bottom along with the rudder, shaft and some artifacts. A large portion of the freighter’s starboard side is on the beach to the north of the lighthouse. Depending on conditions, it can sometimes be visible or otherwise covered in sand. The underwater visibility is generally excellent, and the water here is much warmer than on deeper sites.
The stern section of the Joseph S. Fay sits in shallow water accessible by snorkelers and divers of all experience levels.
Technical Diving Sites

The Typo was a three-masted wooden schooner that sank after a collision on Oct. 14, 1899. It sits upright with the bowsprit intact and all its rigging in place. As you descend toward the wreck, a mast protrudes from the dark depths at around 100 feet. Upon reaching the wreck at 170 to 195 feet, you’ll see the windlass and two wooden stock anchors stowed on the bow railings before encountering the ship’s bell. Not many bells remain on shipwrecks, so it’s exciting to see one. The bowsprit is stunning, and if you descend into the sand to look up at it, it almost looks like something from a movie set. Fallen masts, deadeyes, pulleys and other rigging are on the deck. The Typo was carrying coal when it was struck, and it went down hard and fast. The stern bears the impact damage, and coal litters the lake bottom. Many artifacts are in the coal piles, including the remains of the four crew members who went down with the ship. Divers are respectful and do not disturb them.
The wooden wheel on the stern of the Cornelia B. Windiate is one of the first things divers see as they descend to the wreck.
The Cornelia B. Windiate disappeared during a fierce storm in November 1875. It was presumed to have sunk in Lake Michigan, but it was discovered in Lake Huron more than a century later. No one knows what happened to the crew of nine. Next to the wreck sits the yawl boat, which is a haunting reminder that all hands were lost. This 138-foot three-masted schooner was in perfect condition when discovered in 1986. All three masts are standing, the wheel is intact, a spiral wooden staircase leads into the preserved cabin, and the rudder is turned hard. The bow has wooden stock anchors and a windlass, but the bowsprit is broken. If you look closely on the portside stern, you can still read the name Cornelia B. Windiate etched into the wood. Plenty of artifacts remain on the deck to see, but the real gem is simply letting yourself be taken back in time.
The Newell A. Eddy was a 242-foot three-masted schooner barge that carried wheat. While under tow in April 1893, the Newell A. Eddy broke free from its consort, the Charles A. Eddy, during a strong gale. The storm took the ship and its entire crew. A research vessel discovered the wreck in 1992 with all three masts standing and in pristine condition in 168 feet of water near Cheboygan, Michigan. This impressive ship sits on the boundary of the sanctuary. There is typically no mooring, but captains will put out a jug to mark the downline, which does not go to the wreck but rather to an anchor chain sprawled out across the lake bottom. When you get to 120 feet on the line, you can start looking for the wreck or continue on the line to the bottom and follow the anchor chain. The visibility is usually just enough to see the tip of the big bowsprit. I typically put a strobe on the downline as a visual. This enormous wreck has an intact deck at about 135 to 140 feet, and dropping inside the cargo holds takes you to 165 feet. The impressive bowsprit and standing masts are incredible. There is still rigging, and most of the Newell A. Eddy is very well preserved, although parts of the stern have broken away. Visibility can vary from 40 to 70 feet, and this area tends to have a lot of particulates in the water.
The massive bow of the Newell A. Eddy still has rigging attached and the name on the capstan.
The S.S. Florida was a 270-foot wooden steamer built in 1889 in Buffalo, New York, that carried a mix of package freight. On a foggy day in May 1897, the steamer George W. Roby struck the Florida, almost cutting it in half. The Florida sank in 12 minutes to 206 feet, where it sits mostly intact. The distinct V shape from the collision on its starboard side is impressive and a great opening for entering the wreck and seeing its freight of flour, merchandise and lard barrels. Some barrels float against the ship’s ceiling, and others have broken open, leaving bright white mounds on the floor. A portion of the galley reveals a teapot and other dishes. On the bow the anchors sit tight, and the capstan reads S.S. Florida 1889. The stern has collapsed, exposing the engine with its gauges visible. An iron bell sits nearby, off the port side near the break on the stern.

The Thunder Bay National Marine Sanctuary protects and manages these exceptional and historical shipwrecks. The wrecks highlighted here are only a fraction of what you can find in this area of the Great Lakes. NOAA and other shipwreck hunters discover new wrecks every few years using the latest sidescan technology and advances in dive technology. Diving these wrecks makes me realize there is still so much more to discover. Visiting a shipwreck that not many people have seen for more than 140 years is beyond unique, and there are few places in the world where you can dive and feel like you’ve gone back in time.
To learn more, visit thunderbay.noaa.gov/welcome. View Schott’s photogrammetry on the Joseph S. Fay at https://skfb.ly/6U7Ys.

Categories

 2021
 April
Aqua Pool Noodle ExercisesUnderwater Photographer and DAN Member Madelein Wolfaardt10 Simple Things You Can Do to Improve Your Underwater PhotographyCOVID-19 and Diving: March 2021 UpdateDiver Return After COVID-19 Infection (DRACO): A Longitudinal AssessmentGuidelines for Lifelong Medical Fitness to DiveExperienceFitness Myth or Fitness Fact?The Safety of Sports for Athletes With Implantable Cardioverter-DefibrillatorsCardiovascular Fitness and DivingHypertensionPatent Foramen Ovale (PFO)Headaches and DivingMiddle-Ear Barotrauma (MEBT)O’Neill Grading SystemMask Squeeze (Facial Barotrauma)Sinus BarotraumaInner-Ear Barotrauma (IEBT)Middle-Ear EqualisationAlternobaric VertigoDecompression IllnessOn-Site Neurological ExaminationTreating Decompression Sickness (The Bends)Top 5 Factors That Increase Your Risk of the BendsHow to Avoid Rapid Ascents and Arterial Gas EmbolismUnintended Rapid Ascent Due to Uncontrolled InflationUnexpected Weight LossFlying After DivingWisdom Tooth Extraction and DivingYour Lungs and DivingScuba Diving and DiabetesDiving after COVID-19: What We Know TodaySwimmer’s Ear (Otitis Externa)Motion SicknessFitness for DivingDiving After Bariatric SurgeryWhen to Consult a Health-Care Provider Before Engaging in Physical ActivitiesFinding Your FitnessHealth Concerns for Divers Over 50Risk Factors For Heart DiseaseJuggling Physical Exercise and DivingSeasickness Prevention and TreatmentMember to Member: Guidelines for SeniorsHigh-Pressure OphthalmologyOver-the-Counter Medications
immersion and bubble formation Accidents Acid reflux Acute ailments After anaesthesia Air Quality Air exchange centre Air hose failure Air supply Airway control Air Alert Diver Magazine Alternative gas mix Altitude changes Altitude diving Altitude sickness Aluminium Oxide Ama divers Amino acids Anaerobic Metabolism Animal life Annual renewal Apnea Apnoea Aquatic life Aquatics and Scuba Diving Archaeology Arterial Gas Embolisms Arterial gas embolism Arthroscopic surgery Aspirin Aurel hygiene BCD BHP BLS BWARF Back adjustment Back pain Back treatment Backextensors Badages Bag valve mask Bahamas Balancing Bandaids Barbell back squat Barometric pressure Barotrauma Basic Life Support Batteries Becky Kagan Schott Bench press Benign prostate hyperplasia Benzophenones Beth Neale Beyond Standards Bilikiki Tours Biophysics Black Blood flow Blood thinners Blue Wilderness Blue economy Blurred vision Boat safety Boesmans gat Boesmansgat Bone fractures Bouyancy compensators Boyle's Law Boyle\'s Law Bradycardia Brain Breast Cancer Breath Hold Diving Breath holding Breath hold Breath-hold Breathing Gas Breathing gas contamination Breathing Breathold diving Bright Bank Broken bones Bruising Bubbleformation Buddy Exercise Buddy checks Buoyancy Burnshield CGASA CMAS CO2 COVID-19 Updates COVID-19 COVID CPR Cabin pressure Caissons diseas California Camera equipment Camera settings Cameras Cancer Remission Cancer treatments Cancer Cannabis and diving Cannabis Cape Town Dive Festival Cape Town Dive Sites Cape Town CapeTown Carbon Monoxide Carbon dioxide Cardio health Cardiological Cardiomyopathy Caribbean Carmel Bay Catalina Island Cave diving Challenging Environments Chamber Safety Chamber science Charging batteries Charles' Law Charles\' Law Charles\\\' Law Charles\\\\\\\' Law Charles\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\' Law Charlie Warland Chemotherapy Chest compressions Children diving Chiropractic Chlorophll Christina Mittermeier Citizen Conservation Cleaning products Closed Circuit Rebreathers Cmmunity partnership Coastalexcursion Cold Water Cold care ColdWater Cold Commercial Fishing Commercial diving Commercial schools Composition Compressed Air Compressed gas Consercation Conservation Photographer Conservation photography Conservation Contact lenses Contaminants Contaminated air Coral Conservation Coral Reefs Coral Restoration Coral bleaching CoralGroupers Corals Core strength Corona virus Coro Costamed Chamber Courtactions Cozumel Cristina Mittermeier Crohns disease Crowns Crystal build up Crystallizing hoses Cutaneous decompression Cylinder Ruptures Cylinder handwheel Cylinder valves DAN Courses DAN Profile DAN Researchers DAN medics DAN members DAN report DCI DCS Decompressions sickness DCS theories DCS DEMP DM training DNA DReams Dalton's Law Dalton\'s Law Dalton\\\'s Law Dalton\\\\\\\'s Law Dalton\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\'s Law Danel Wenzel Dangerous Marinelife Dauin island Dean's Blue Hole Dean\'s Blue Hole Deco dives Decompression Illness Decompression Sickness Decompression Stress Decompression illsnes Decompression treatment Decompression Decorator crabs Deep diving Deep water exploration Deepest SCUBA Dive Delayed Offgassing Dental Dever Health Diaphragms Diopter Diseases Disinfection Dive Buddy Dive Chamber Dive Computer Dive Destinations Dive H Dive Industry Dive Instruction Dive Instructor Dive Medical Form Dive Medical Dive Practices Dive Pros Dive Research Dive Safety Tips Dive South Africa Dive Training Dive Travel Wakatobi Dive Travel Dive accidents Dive buddies Dive computers Dive courses Dive excursions Dive exercise Dive experience Dive fitness Dive gear Dive heallth Dive health Dive medicals Dive medicines Dive medicine Dive operators Dive planning Dive procedures Dive safety 101 Dive safety Dive safe Dive skills Dive staff Dive travels DiveLIVE Diveleader training Diveleaders Diver Health Diver Profile Diver infliencers Diver on surface Divers Alert Divesites Diving Divas Diving Kids Diving Programs Diving Trauma Diving career Diving emergencies Diving emergency management Diving fit Diving guidelines Diving injuries Diving suspended Diving Dizziness Dolphins Domestic Donation Dowels Dr Rob Schneider Drift diving Drysuit diving Drysuit valves Drysuits Dyperbaric medicines EAPs EAP Ear pressure Ear wax Ears injuries Eco friendly Education Electronic Emergency action planning Emergency decompression Emergency plans Emergency underwater Oxygen Recompression Emergency Enviromental Protection Environmental factors Environmental impact Environmental managment Equalisation Equipment care Equipment failure Equipment inspection Evacuations Evacuation Evaluations Even Breath Exercise Exhaustion Exposure Protection Extended divetime Extinguisher Extreme treatments Eye injuries FAQ Factor V Leiden Failures FalseBay Diving Fatigue Faulty equipment Female divers Fetus development Fillings Fire Coral Fire Safety Firefighting First Aid Equipment First Aid Kit First Aid Training First Aid kits Fish Identification Fish Life Fish Fit to dive Fitness Training Fitness to dive Fitnesstrainng Fitness Flying Focus lights Foundations Fractures Francesca Diaco Francois Burman Fredive Free Student cover Free diving Free flow Freedive INstructor Freedive Training Freediver Freediving Instructors Freediving performance Freediving Gar Waterman Gas Density Gas consumption Gas laws Gas mixes GasPerformance Gases Gass bubbles Gastoeusophagus Gastric bypass Gastroenterologist Gear Servicing Germs Geyer Bank Giant Kelp Forest Giant Kelp Girls that Scba Gobies Gordon Hiles Great White Sharks Guinness World Record Gutt irritations HCV HELP HIRA HMLI HMS Britanica Haemorhoid treatment Hazard Description Hazardous Marine life Hazardous marinelife Headaches Health practitioner Heart Attack Heart Health Heart Rate monitor Heart fitness Heart rates Heart rate Heart Heat stress Helium Hepatitis C Hepatitus B Hiatal Hernia High Pressure vessels High temperatures Hip strength Hip surgery Hippocampus History Hot Humans Hydrate Hydration Hydrogen Hydroids Hydrostatic pressure Hygiene Hyperbaric Chamber Hyperbaric research Hyperbarics Hypothermia Hypoxia I-52 found INclusivity IdentiFin Imaging Immersion Immine systems In Water Recompression Indemnity form Indian Ocean Indigo SCuba Indonesia Inert gas Infections Infra red Imaging Injections Inner ear Instinct Instruction Instructors Insurance Integrated Physiology International travel International Interval training Irritation Irukandji Syndrome Isotta housing Joint pain Junior Open Water Diver KZN South Coast Karen van den Oever Kate Jonker KateJonker Kidneys Kids scubadiver Komati Springs KwaZulu Natal Labour laws Lake Huron Laryngospasm Lauren Arthur Learning to dive Legal Network Legal advice Legislation Lembeh Straights Lenses Leukemis Liability Risks Liability releases Liability Life expectancy Lifestyle Lightroom editing Live aboard diving Liver Toxicity Liver diseas Liz Louw Lost at sea Low blood pressure Low pressure deterioration Low volume masks Lung Irritation Lung function Lung injuries Lung squeeze Lung surgery Lung MOD Macro photography Maintenance Malaria Mammalian Dive Response Mammalian effect Mandarin Fish Marine Biology Marine Science Marine Scientists Marine conservation Marine parks Marinelife Masks Master scuba diver Maximum operating depth Medical Q Medical emergencies Medical questionaire Medical statement Medicalresearch Medication Mehgan Heaney-Grier Mermaid Danii Mesophotic Michael Aw Middle ear pressure Mike Bartick Military front press Misool Resort Raja Ampat Mixed Gas Mono Fins Mooring lines More pressure Motion sickness Motionsickness Mozambique Muscle pain Mycobacterium marinum National Geographic Nausea Nautilus Ndibranchs Neck pain Neoprene layers Neuro assessments Neurological assessments Nitrogen Narcosis Nitrogen build up Nitrox No-decompression Non-nano zinc oxide Non-rebreather Mask Nonrebreather masks Normal Air North Sulawesi Nosebleeds Nuno Gomes O2 providers O2 servicing OOxygen maintenance Ocean Projects Ocean Research Ocean pollution Oil contamination Open water divers Optical focus Orbital implants Oronasal mask Osteonecrosis Out and about Out of air Outer ears Outreach Overhead Envirenments Oxygen Administration Oxygen Cylinder Oxygen Units Oxygen deficit Oxygen deicit Oxygen dificiency Oxygen ears Oxygen equipment Oxygen masks Oxygen supplies Oxygen supply Oxygen systems Oxygen therapy Oxygen P J Prinsloo PADI Freedivers PFI PJP Tech Parentalsupervision Part 3 Partner Training Perspective Philippine Islands Philippines Phillipines Photographers Photography tips Photography Physical Fitness Physioball Physiology Physiotherapy Pills Pistons Planning Plastic Pneumonia Pneumothorax Poison Pollution Pool Diving Pool workout Post-dive Pre-dive Predive check Pregnancy Pregnant divers Preparation Prepared diver Press Release Preventions Professional rights Provider course Psycological Pulmanologist Pulmonary Barotrauma Pulmonary Bleb Pulmonary Edema Pulse Punture wounds Pure Apnea Purge RAID South Africa RCAP REEF Radio communications Range of motion Rashes Rebreather diving Rebreatherdive Rechargeable batteries. Recompression chamber Recompression treatment Recompression Recycle Reef Chcek Reef Conservation Reef safe Reef surveyors Refractive correction Regulator failure Regulators Regulator Remote areas Renewable Report incidents Rescue Divers Rescue Procedure Rescue breathing Rescue breaths Rescue training Rescue Resume diving Return To Diving Return to diving Risk Assessments Risk assesments Risk assessment Risk elements Risk management Roatan Marine Park Roatan SABS 019 SMB SafariLive Safety Gear Safety Stop Safety SaherSafe Barrier Salty Wanderer Sanitising Sara Andreotti Sardine Run Saturation Diving Save our seas Schrimps Science Scombroid Poisoning Scuba Air Quality Scuba Guru Scuba Injury Scuba Instructor Scuba children Scuba divers Scuba dive Scuba education Scuba health Scubalearners Scubalife Sea Horses Sea slugs Sealife Seasickness Sea Shallow dives Shark Protection Shark Research Shark conservation Shark diving Sharks Shipwrecks Shoulder strength Sideplank Signs and Symptoms Sit-ups Skin Bends Skin outbreak Skin rash Snorkeling Snorkels Social Distancing Sodwana Bay Solomon Islands Sonnier bank South Africa Spinal bends Spinal cord DCS Spinal pain Splits Squeezes Squid Run Stability exercise Standars Stay Fit Stents Step ups Stephen Frink Stepping up Strobe Lighting Stroke Submerge tech Submerged Sudafed Sulawesi Sun protection Sunscreen Supplemental oxygen Surface Marker Buoys Surface supplied Air Surfaced Surgeries Surgery Suspension training Symbiosis TRavel safety Tabata protocol Talya Davidoff Tattoes Tec Clark Technical Diving Technical divng The Bends The greatest Shoal The truth Thermal Notions Thunder Bay National Marine Sanctuary Tides Tips and trick Tooth squeeze Transplants Travel smarter Travel tips Travel Tropical Coastal Management Tunnelling Tweezers Ultrsound Umkomaas Unconsciousness Underground work Underseaa world Underwaater Photos Underwater Photographer Manirelife Underwater floral Gardens Underwater hockey Underwater photographer Underwater photography Underwater pho Underwater University of Stellenbosch Urinary retention. Vaccines Vagus nerve Valsalva manoeuvers Valve stem seals Vape Vaping Vasopressors Vasvagal Syncope Venting Verna van Schak Virus infections Volatile fuels WWII wrecks War stories Washout treatments Wastewater Watchman device Water Resistance Water Weakness Weigang Xu Weights West Papua Western Cape Diving Wet Lenses Wet diving bell Wetsuit fitting Wetsuites Wetsuits White balance Wide Angle Photos Wide angles Wildlife Winter Wits Underwater Club Woman and diving Woman in diving Womans health Woman Women In Diving SA Women and Diving Women in diving Womens Month Womens health Work of Breathing Workout World Deeepst Dive Record World Records Wound dressings Wreck divers Wreck dive Wreck diving Wreckdiving Wrecks Yoga Youth diver Zandile Ndholvu Zoology abrasion absolute pressure acoustic neuroma excision adverse seas air-cushioned alert diver altitude alveolar walls anemia antibiotics anticoagulants antiseptics bandages barodontalgia bent-over barbell rows bioassays body art breathing air calories burn carbon dioxide toxicity cardiovascular cerebrospinal fluid cervical spine checklist chemo port children child chronic obstructive pulmonary disease clearances closed circuit scuba corrective lenses currents cuts dead lift decompression algorithms decongestants decongestion dehydration dive injuries dive medicing dive ready child dive reflex dive tribe diver in distress diver rescue diver training dive diving attraction doctors domestic travel dri-suits drowning dry mucous membranes dry suits dry e-cigarettes ear spaces elearning electrolyte imbalance electroytes emergency action plans emergency assessment emergency training environmentally friendly equalising equalizing exposure injuries eyes fEMAL DIVERS fire rescue fitnes flexible tubing frediving freedivers gas bubble gas poisoning gastric acid gene expression health heartburn histidine hospital humidity immersion and bubble formation immersion pulmonary edema (IPE informal education isopropyl alcohol jaundice join DAN knee laparoscopic surgery longevity lower stress malaise marielife marine pathogens medical issues medical procedures medical risk assesment medications mental challenge mental preparedness micro-organisims micro minor illness mucous membranes nasal steroids nasal near drowning nematocysts neurological newdivers nitrogen bubbles off-gassed operating theatre operations orthopeadic otitis media outgas pain perforation phillippines phrenic nerve physical challenges pinched nerves plasters pneumoperitoneum polyester-TPU polyether-TPU post dive posture prescription mask preserve prevention proper equalization psychoactive pulmonary barotrauma. pulmonary injury. pulmunary barotrauma radiation rebreather mask rebreathers retinal detachment risk areas safety stops saturation scissors scuba equipment scuba single use sinus infections smoking snorkeling. spearfishing sterilising stings strength sub-aquatic sunscreen lotion swimmers ears tattoo care tecnical diver thermal protection tissue damage toxicity training trimix unified standards upwelling vision impaired vomiting warmers water quality zinc oxide